I recently watched Blackfish a documentary about killer whales. The documentary touched on the advanced brain structure of these killer whales. The paralimbic structure, not present in humans, lead researchers to believe killer whales are much more socially advanced than humans. This was reinforced by the killer whales displays of emotion and attachment. In the wild they have different languages and cultures much like different countries. If their brains looked so robust after a lifetime of captivity, deprived of culture and family, imagine what they look like in their natural habitat. In an article by Marino et al., researchers examine the killer whale brain in depth. The used an MRI to look at the brain of an adult killer whale who had recently died of natural causes. There were many interesting findings, I will highlight a few. I suggest using the link at the bottom for further investigation. The frontal operculum had many more folds than the human version. In humans, the frontal operculum is involved in speech. This adds to the theory that killer whales have advanced dialects and possibly societal structure. Or this part of the brain could serve a different purpose in killer whales. The topographical arrangement of cortical maps in killer whales is very different from other mammals. The killer whale brain appears extremely elaborated in the limbic lobe. The developed limbic lobe is an interesting feature to the small hippocampus. Killer whales exhibit highly sophisticated ranging and distribution patterns that depend heavily on spatial memory skills.